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  1. #1

    Read Introduction to Android OS

    Introduction to Android OS
    Get to know the basics of the Android OS

    Table of Contents

    Introduction to Modding: Rooting and Custom ROMs
    (FAQs and Explanations)

    Terms and Definitions
    (Common terms used in Android)

    Android OS Release History

    Rooting and Custom ROMs
    (Benefits and further explanation)

    Frequently Asked Questions/MAdalas Na Itinatanong

    Rule of Thumb


    How to install Android applications

    Kindly message me if there are terms that you would like to add and also if I made a mistake so I can correct it.
    Thank You.
    Last edited by HHubs; 2nd Sep 2012 at 06:03.

  2. #2

    Default Re: Android Terminologies and Dictionary

    Introduction to Modding: Rooting and Custom ROMs
    credits to The_ERROR of xda for compiling this

    1. Basics of Unix-like system

    • * su, root, rooting - what is it, why we need it
    • * sh, bash, busybox - what BusyBox is, basic list of commands from BusyBox, bash, sh

    Also referred to as substitute user - a command for changing the account in the current terminal (usually black screen with blinking cursor). Default account is root account. So if you insert into terminal 'su' and hit enter, you will become root user.

    Root alias superuser or poweruser is special user account for system administration. Similar to windows having its administrator account, unix-like systems have a root account. With this, you can do anything and if you run a command to delete the whole system, unix will just do it! No asking, no confirming. So, watch your steps!

    Rooting is just enabling power of root for applications and other purposes.

    Superuser app
    After rooting is done, you will see a new app called superuser in app drawer. This app can delegate applications to use su (root) feature. When an app asks this from first use, a popup window will appear asking if the application should be allowed to use root permission.

    sh, bash
    is a command-line interpreter or shell that provides a traditional user interface for the Unix operating system and for Unix-like systems. So simply, it is some interface, which can execute command(s), which you have entered. Many shells exist, but in scope of android you can (as far as I know) use only sh (standard - Bourne-shell) or bash (compiled in BusyBox or separately on XDA). Both are basically same, but bash has much more features and it is more comfortable.

    user/root shell
    How do I know if I'm root or normal user? It's simple. Root's shell is ended with # (usually it's shell looks like "bash-3.2# _") and user's ends with $ (usually bash-3.2$ _). In terminal emulator you also can have only [path]($|#) (for root for example "/etc # _")

    also called "The Swiss Army Knife of Embedded Linux" is a tool which brings into Android basic tools known from unix system, but is much more smaller than standard tools is. But this "packing" has limited functions in comparison to standard tools in unix-system (missing special modes of tool, color output and so on). Many application use this. For example busybox grep (filtering of text) is needed for application called Market enabler.

    BusyBox commands
    list of commands is really wide, so it's not possible explain all, so I pickup only top few. (hint: if you want what some command do, just search on google for "man <command_name>" for example man mv or enter command here

    1. cd - change directory - same like in windows. You can switch directory. example: cd /sdcard
    2. ls - list of files in actual directory (have few switches like for example: ls -l /sdcard/*.png (detailed listing)
    3. cat - print file into standard output (like more in windows) Example: cat /sdcard/data.txt
    4. vi - editing of file. But on limited phone keyboard (no keyboard) it is little harder Read more about vi
    5. cp - copy of one or more file. Example: cp /sdcard/bike.jpg /sdcard/media/bike-wallpaper.jpg
    6. mv - moving/rename files, Example: mv /sdcard/bike.jpg /sdcard/media/renamed-moved-bike.jpg
    7. rm - delete file (rm -R for recursive, or for delete whole folder), Example: rm -R /sdcard/wallpaper-bad/*
    8. find - search for files, Example find / -name "best-chopper-ever.avi"
    9. mkdir - make directory - creates directory, Example: mkdir mynewdir
    10. chmod - changes access of files
    11. less - similar like cat, but you can scroll in it and it doesn't produce any output. Example: less /sdcard/funnytext.txt

    Please, take due note that main pages are documentation of unix tools. For BusyBox's tool help, just enter BusyBox <command_name> -h.

    2. Android platform and its specifics

    • * adb shell
    • * Android SDK
    • * Tools for Android adb shell - Terminal Emulator, ADB shell from Android SDK and how to use it

    ADB (shell)
    ADB - Android Debug Bridge is a versatile tool that lets you manage the state of an emulator instance or Android-powered device. It is a client-server program that includes three components:

    • * A client, which runs on your development machine. You can invoke a client from a shell by issuing an adb command. Other Android tools such as the ADT plugin and DDMS also create adb clients.
    • * A server, which runs as a background process on your development machine. The server manages communication between the client and the adb daemon running on an emulator or device.
    • * A daemon, which runs as a background process on each emulator or device instance.

    Generally, it can be compared with standard cmd prompt in windows (you can write commands which will be executed locally, for example in Terminal Emulator) or it can be just like SSH in unix-like system (you connect to terminal through adb client (in Android SDK) and commands will be run remotely.

    Android SDK
    Android software development kit is a complex set of tools for developing apps on Android. It includes a fully usable emulator of Android OS on your PC, where you can do everything. You can install/delete apps, browse web page in embedded web browser, play games or make your own application in Eclipse (widely used IDE for development). Of course, with emulator you can use also GPS or camera.

    Android SDK tools

    • * Fully emulated Android device
    • * Android Development Tools Plugin (Eclipse IDE)
    • * Android Virtual Devices (AVDs)
    • * Hierarchy Viewer
    • * layoutopt
    • * Draw 9-patch
    • * Dalvik Debug Monitor Service (ddms)
    • * Android Debug Bridge (adb)
    • * Android Asset Packaging Tool (aapt)
    • * Android Interface Description Language (aidl)
    • * sqlite3
    • * Traceview
    • * mksdcard
    • * dx
    • * UI/Application Exerciser Monkey
    • * monkeyrunner
    • * Android
    • * zipalign

    Tools for work with Android adb shell
    You have two ways to connect into ADB service - locally and remotely.

    1. Locally - for local access you will need some application which can connect to local adb shell.
      Terminal Emulator (free) - probably most commonly used app from market, which works and looks like standard unix shell.
      ConnectBot (free) - same as Terminal Emulator, but it can be also used for connecting via SSH or telnet
    2. Remotely- For remote connection you need phone configuration adjustment:
      Home desktop -> [menu button] -> Settings -> Applications -> Development -> USB debugging [ON].
      Also you need connect your phone via USB (or finds on market some widget/app, witch enable using ADB also via wi-fi)

    adb tool from Android SDK
    After downloading Android SDK, extract the archive anywhere (in example I extracted it in c:/AndroidSDK). Then follow instructions on developer.android.com for installation of SDK Platform-tools (contains adb). After installation click on start menu and in Run... (in Windows7 in search bar) enter 'cmd' and press Ok or [enter]. Then write in cmd line:
    cd c:\AndroidSDK\android-sdk-windows\tools [enter]
    now you can enter following command to connect to phone's adb shell if you don't have more connected device (virtual or real-one)
    adb shell
    If you have more then one, you need explicitly say which one should be used for connection. So list connected devices with
    adb devices
    which shows you serial number of connected devices. Than use
    adb -s <serial-number> shell
    3. Custom recovery

    • * What is custom recovery
    • * Tools which custom recovery provide - NAND backup/restore, formatting of SDcard, partitioning (ext1,ext2, ext3), wiping, flashing of Custom ROM, ...
    • * Is it safe to install? - potential problems, backup/restore of original recovery
    • * How this whole thing works - installation description (not how-to install, just explanation of what is done during installation)

    What is custom recovery
    Recovery is an image (binary data) stored in internal memory. This image contains something like a "program" or "tool", which can boot-up independently from the Android system. This tool is part of phone system, and in PC terminology recovery can by compared to BIOS with some added features. This recovery state can be reached on all phones, but if you don't have a custom recovery, it will do a so-called HW reset and automatically restart itself into standard boot mode.

    Tools which custom recovery provides

    • * USB-MS Toggle :mounts sdcard as mass storage

    It just mounts your phone as USB-mass storage (USB disk) so you can access it through your PC

    • * Backup/Restore:

    Absolutely GREAT feature. With NAND you can copy an image of your actual system (phone's memory). It means that you can backup the whole system with all configuration, customization, wallpapers, system's tweaks... just everything. This image will be written to your SD card which you are then free to copy around and back up on your computer

    • * Flash Zip From Sdcard

    This tool is designed for installation of custom ROMs or tweaks. If you are instructed to install via custom recovery, then you should use this menu. Never unzip the file because it contains meta-information about itself with some validate-checks so if you edit it, or unpack and pack back, it won't work. And remember to place the file in the root (main folder) of your sdcard.

    • * Wipe Menu:

    Wipe data/factory reset: wipes data & cache
    - wipes user data (contacts, apps, configuration, ...) and cache (caches of applications)
    Wipe cache
    - wipes cache only
    Wipe Dalvik cache : Wipes Dalvik cache in all possible locations if moved by apps2sd
    - wipes Dalvik cache
    Wipe SD:ext : Wipes Apps2sd ext partition
    - if you used Partition SDcard option, you can wipe it here
    Wipe Battery Stats (remember to fully charge your phone before doing this)
    - If you think, that your battery life is too short, you can try delete battery stats. Than let phone fully charge. (more)
    Wipe rotate settings
    - wipe sensor settings (acceleration, ...)
    Wipe .android secure : Wipes froyo native .android_secure on sdcard
    - wipe information about moved apps

    • * Partition Sdcard:

    Partition SD: Partitions sdcard for apps2sd (this formats card so all data will be lost)
    - will create ext2 partition (you will be asked for size of ext2 and cache)
    Repair Sd:ext
    SD:ext2 to ext3 : converts apps2sd ext2 partition to ext3 (requires kernel support for ext3)
    SD:ext3 to ext4 : same as above but ext3 to ext4 (requires kernel support for ext4)

    ext2 - file system for the Linux kernel (no journal, fast but not recovery of I/O error)
    ext3 - file system for the Linux kernel (journal, slower than ext2 because of journal, but provides recovery on I/O error)
    ext4 - file system for the Linux kernel (journal, enhanced version of ext3)

    • * Mounts:

    Gui automatically mounts folders

    4. Custom ROM (generally)

    • * What is a Custom ROM?
    • * Is it safe to install custom ROMs? - potential problems
    • * What do I need to install?
    • * What can custom ROM provide - kernel, update, performance, customization, theme, ....
    • * what is ...
    o deodexed, zipaglined, png-optimized
    o JIT, HW:acceleration, VM.Heap Size, stagefright
    o apps2sd + dalvik2sd
    o custom kernel (recompiled, ...)

    What is a Custom ROM?

    Custom ROM is a modification of the manufacturer's ROM or ROM compiled from Android sources. "Change/s" ranges from adding/removing default applications up to including kernels, cpu over/under-clocking, enable/disable features (ROOT, HW acceleration, ...), themes (frameworks, color, ...), keyboards and many other features.
    A Custom ROM is usually distributed as a signed ZIP package that includes an installation script for custom recovery. This ZIP is flashed via custom recovery tool.

    Is it safe to install a custom ROM?

    Yes, it is. If you are not satisfied, you can just restore your old ROM using a NAND backup. And yes, you can also use backup tools like Astro or Titanium Backup to backup your apps and restore these in your new ROM (NOTE: In this case it's strongly recommended that both ROM should have same or very similar source/base ROM).

    What do I need to install one?

    1) Rooted phone
    2) Installed custom recovery
    3) Signed .ZIP file of ROM compatible with recovery
    #) RECOMMENDED: NAND backup of your actual ROM

    What does custom ROM bring

    Custom ROM brings almost every feature you can imagine.
    OS optimization for games, long battery life, calling, texting, playing videos,...
    awesome look - changed icons, colors, animations, wallpapers, menu, ....
    reconstructed framework - restart button, reorganized menu, shorts, gestures, etc
    allow tweaking - overclok/underclok your device, ROOT, ....

    It's really not possible describe here every possibility what you can do/get with custom ROM.

    what is ...

    png-optimized -
    png files takes less memory, are loads faster
    JIT -
    just-in-time compilation also known as dynamic translation, is a method to improve the runtime performance of computer programs, but it takes some time to convert into it on start.
    HW:acceleration -
    using of HW acceleration for rendering GUI. Increases battery consumption.
    VM.Heap Size -
    maximum memory an application can consume
    stagefright -
    In Android 2.2 new media framework that supports local file playback and HTTP progressive streaming
    Last edited by HHubs; 4th Apr 2011 at 16:19. Reason: merging.

  3. #3

    Read Android Terminologies and Dictionary

    Terms and Definitions
    credits to TechCredo, samdroid, xda-developers, CyanogenMod
    edited and compiled by me

    • A2SD+

      A2SD+ is an extension of Android 2.2 Froyo’s native support for installing apps on the SD card, but it virtually installs every app to the external storage. You can more or less expand your internal storage with the size of the partition you create on your memory card — because you need to partition your SD card to use A2SD+. It’s great if your Android phone has a limited amount of internal storage space. Most Android ROMs have built-in support for A2SD+.

    • ADB

      Android Debug Bridge is a tool that comes with the Android SDK that allows you to control and interface with your Android device. It is located in the tools folder when you unpack the SDK. Visit http://wiki.cyanogenmod.com/index.php?title=ADB for a list of commands

    • Alpha

      Usually pertains to a "test" or "initial" release. Alpha software can be unstable and is mainly used for preview and testing purposes.

    • AMOLED

      Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode

    • AOSP

      AOSP is short for Android Open Source Project, and when the term is used in ROM descriptions, it usually indicates that the ROM in question is based on the Android source code provided by Google itself, and not on some other ROM project or a company’s firmware.

    • APK

      The file type for Apps used by Android, you can rename it to .zip and open them.

    • ARM

      A type of processor architecture http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ARM_architecture

    • BFS

      Brain Fuck Scheduler
      It has been reported to improve responsiveness on light-NUMA (non-uniform memory access) Linux mobile devices and desktop computers with fewer than 16 cores.

    • Bloatware

      Software or 'apps' that you don't need, but come preinstalled to a device's /system partition, meaning that you cannot remove them unless the device has been rooted.

    • Bootloader

      The bootloader executes code before any operating system is launched. On Android devices, the bootloader is usually locked because manufacturers want you to use the version of Android they’ve provided. With a locked bootloader on Android phones, custom ROMs cannot be flashed.

    • Brick

      When your device is rendered unusable from improper flashing or physically damage such that it becomes like a useless piece of brick.

    • BusyBox

      BusyBox is an app on your phone that will give you access to additional Linux/Unix based commands. You may need BusyBox installed to perform some root level tasks, and some other apps that require root access may need BusyBox installed as well. BusyBox is self-dubbed “The Swiss Army Knife of Embedded Linux.”

    • CFS

      Completely Fair Scheduler
      It handles CPU resource allocation for executing processes, and aims to maximize overall CPU utilization while maximizing interactive performance.

    • Compcache

      virtual swap, setting aside a certain percentage (usually 25%) of your RAM as 'compressed' swap. Compcache compresses the data that would normally go to swap, then moves it back into RAM, and reverses the process when moving it out of the 'compressed' swap.

    • CyanogenMod or CM

      CyanogenMod, often abbreviated CM, is a custom version of vanilla (more or less unmodified) Android. It’s the most popular custom ROM for Android – a community effort, and many other ROMs are based on CyanogenMod. Among other things, it adds a bunch of extra customization features and options.

    • Dalvik & Dalvik cache

      Dalvik is the cryptic name of the virtual machine (VM) in Android, and it’s the basis for running apps (with the .apk filename extension) on the platform. Before Android apps are launched, they’re converted into the compact Dalvik Executable (.dex) format, which is designed to be suitable for systems that are constrained in terms of memory and processor speed.

      The Dalvik cache is a simply the cache used by Dalvik, and it’s the result of Dalvik doing optimizations of running apps. Some Android ROMs allow you to move the Dalvik cache to your SD card, in order to free up internal storage.

    • Data2SD / D2EXT / D2SD

      If a ROM supports data2SD, D2EXT, or simply D2SD, it means that the /data folder on your Android phone’s internal storage can be moved to your memory card instead. That’s a good thing, because it will free up precious internal megabytes and leave more room for apps and games. Some say that having the data stored on your SD card is slightly slower, though.

      D2ext is a short way of saying “data to the extended file system”. It requires that you have created a partition on your SD card.

    • Deodexed

      When a ROM has been deodexed, it means that its apps have been prepared so they can be modified. Deodexed ROMs feature apps that have been repackaged in a certain way. Android applications, .APKs, contain .odex files that devs supposedly use to save space. These .odex files are extracted from the application packages and put in the /system/ folder on your phone, to speed up boot processes and to allow parts of applications to be preloaded.

      However, this makes hacking and modifying those apps difficult because parts of the apps have been extracted to another location. Deodexing means that all pieces of an application package are put back together into one file, and it makes sure that a modified .APK won’t conflict with some separate odexed parts located somewhere else. Developers of custom ROMs choose to deodex their ROM packages, since it lets them modify various .APKs, and it also makes theming possible after the ROMs have been installed.

    • DVM

      Dalvik Virtual Machinehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dalvik_(software)

    • EXT2/3/4

      This refers to ext2, ext3, and ext4 partitions on your SD card. They’re extended file systems for Linux that can be used by Android, usually in order to preserve internal storage space. Many custom Android ROMs require that you have an ext2, ext3 or ext4 partition on your memory card. Ext2 is the oldest type of extended file system, and ext4 is the newest. Some say that ext4 will put an unnecessary strain on your memory card, because it writes to it so much, and I think the ext3 file system currently is most common.

      So what exactly is a partition? It’s a part of a hard disk, or a SD card in this case, that’s separated from the other parts. Think of partitioning as dividing your SD card into two sections that have different purposes.

    • Fastboot

      Fastboot is essentially a boot menu that you can do stuff from before Android is launched. “Fastboot is a protocol used to directly update the flash file system in Android devices from a host over USB.”

    • Firmware

      A phone’s firmware is basically its operating system. A “firmware update” means that the operating system, the software that controls the phone, is updated. “Stock firmware” means that the firmware is unmodified: it’s the version of the operating system the phone’s manufacturer delivers.

    • Flash and flashing

      To flash a custom ROM, or a firmware, simply means that you install it. So, flashing is the process of installing a new version of the Android operating system, or just parts of it, like the radio. Flashing new ROMs is done via the Recovery Mode, usually with ClockworkMod Recovery.

    • Force-close (FC)

      An alert to notify the user that a certain app / process has crashed.

    • GPU

      A graphics processing unit is a specialized microprocessor that offloads and accelerates graphics rendering from the central (micro-)processor.

    • Governor

      refers to a set of code that controls the CPU's behavior

    • HBoot

      HBoot is loaded immediately when your phone is switched on, and it’s mainly responsible for checking and initializing the hardware and starting the phone’s software. It can also be used for flashing official software releases, as well as a few other things. HBoot can be compared to the BIOS on a computer.

    • I/O Scheduling

      Input / Output Scheduling is a term used to describe the method computer operating systems decide the order that block I/O operations will be submitted to storage volumes. I/O Scheduling is sometimes called 'disk scheduling'.

    • JIT

      Just-in-time compiler http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Just-in-time_compilation

    • Kang

      Is a re-compiled / modified version of a code originally created by someone.

    • Kernel

      The kernel is the central component of most operating systems: it’s a bridge between applications and the actual data processing done at the hardware level. The Linux kernel was initially created by legendary Finnish computer science student Linus Torvalds in 1991. Android kernels are often customized, optimized and modified for different purposes, such as over-clocking the processor or extending the battery life. Custom ROMs usually include a new kernel.

    • LCD Density

      Similar to screen resolution adjusted by changing the DPI (Dots per inch) setting of a device. A smaller DPI value will result to smaller characters and a bigger DPI will make characters appear bigger.
      This setting is the exact opposite when you're changing screen resolutions with your desktop PC. (Small reso = Big icons , Big reso = small icons)

    • logcat

      An Android built-in debugging log

    • mount

      It is to link(mount) a partition/filesystem to any location.

    • NANDroid & NANDroid backups

      NANDroid will let anyone with root access make a complete system backup. It lets you create a backup of every piece of information on your phone, and it can be restored later whenever you want. NANDroid backups are usually performed before flashing a new ROM, in case anything goes wrong, or if you want to return to your previous setup later. NANDroid backups are created from the Recovery Mode, often with ClockworkMod Recovery.

    • OC (Over-clocking)

      The method of increasing the CPU clock speed.

    • port (porting)

      The process of making a certain application/mod/software compatible with another device/version

    • Radio

      It’s the radio on your phone that handles communication, the radio that sends and receives voice and data. Flashing (installing) a new radio can improve your reception, and bring other benefits. A radio is flashed via Recovery Mode, just as a full Android ROM.

    • Radio interface layer (RIL)

      Android provides a Radio Interface Layer (RIL) between Android’s telephony services and the radio hardware. Developers and enthusiasts enjoy messing around with every part of Android, and some of them modify the RIL, just like Android itself, the kernel and the radio, to make it better.

    • RC

      When it comes to Android ROMs, RC means Release Candidate. It’s a candidate for the final release of a ROM, and they can be considered ROM betas.

    • RAM

      Random Access Memory (RAM) is temporary data storage that the CPU uses during calculations. The more RAM a device has, the more calculated results the CPU can store - which means less time the CPU has to do the same thing over and over again. In other words, the CPU can check RAM to see if it has already made a particular calculation in the recent past. If it has, it can use the pre-computed results instead of wasting processing time recomputing the same calculation. In short, more RAM means a more efficient (and faster) device.

    • Recovery

      You can think of the Recovery Mode as Android’s equivalent of the BIOS on your computer. Not quite, since Hboot may be more similar to your PC’s BIOS. It’s a boot menu that is shown without Android being loaded, and it gives you access to certain features such as doing complete backups of your phone (Nandroid backups) and installing custom ROMs. ClockworkMod is the most popular Recovery Mode, and it’s installed with the app ROM Manager.

    • Root / Root access

      When someone mentions root, it usually just refers to having root access on an Android phone – also called being a root user, or a superuser. An app / user with root access is able to modify and read the contents of the Android OS.

    • S-OFF (security off)

      On the HTC Desire and several other HTC Android phones, the company has implemented a form of “security.” It’s called @secuflag, and it controls whether your phone has its NAND or flash unlocked. S-ON (security on) will read-lock your /system and /recovery partitions, blocking you from performing certain root level actions directly from Android.

      You can disable this security measure with S-OFF (security off), although you risk bricking your phone in the process (worst case scenario).

    • SDK

      Software Development Kit. You can find the Android SDK at http://developer.android.com/sdk

    • Sideloading

      It means installing applications without using the official Android Market and is usually done via the phone's file manager.

    • Stock

      Usually means "default" or "factory setting"

    • SuperUser

      Android is a Linux-based operating system, and in Linux, there is something called root access. When you root your Android phone, you will get superuser access. The superuser, or root user, is sort of a special user account for system administration. SuperUser is also the name of an app, which lets you grant or deny superuser privileges to other apps.

    • Swap

      virtual RAM. With swap, a small portion of the hard drive is set aside and used like RAM.

    • Terminal and Terminal Emulator

      Terminal Emulator, sometimes just referred to as Terminal, is an app that lets users access Android’s built-in Linux command line shell. The application emulates a Digital Equipment Corporation VT-100 terminal, and it’s mostly useful for programmers and for those with root access.

    • Tethering

      Using a wireless device (e.g. an Android phone) to share it's wireless data connection to another device (e.g. laptop). With an Android device, the wireless data connection can usually be shared via WiFi, Bluetooth or USB connection.

    • Threshold

      refers to a limit or value that is used to trigger a certain event within a script / app.

    • Tweak

      an optional application or script that alters the behavior of the hardware and/or software

    • UV / Undervolt / Undervolting

      reducing the stock CPU voltage to run at less voltage

    • Vanilla/Stock

      A clean, unmodified version of something. In the context of Android ROMs, vanilla refers to the stock ROM that came pre-installed on the device.

    • Widget

      An application that lives (in other words, is always running) on the homescreen instead of being 'run' like a regular app. Common examples are calenders and weather widgets.

    • Wipe

      Usually refers to wiping data and cache partitions of the device.

    • Zipaligned

      Zipalign is a tool that optimizes the way an Android app (.APK) is packaged. It enables Android to interact with the application more efficiently, and in doing so, it has the potential to make the app and the entire Android system much faster. Zipaligned applications are launched more quickly, and they use less amounts of RAM. So, thumbs up for zipaligned Android ROMs.
    Last edited by HHubs; 1st Sep 2012 at 22:15.

  4. #4

    Default Android OS Release History

    Android OS Release History

    1.5 Cupcake
    It was the first major update to Android that supported devices other than the G1.
    for more details:
    Android 1.5 Highlights


    • MMS - New Features
    • E-mail - Significant bug fixes
    • Alarm Clock - Significant bug fixes
    • Package Installer - Significant bug fixes
    • Settings - New features
    • Music - New features
    • Browser - New features
    • VoiceDialer - New features
    • Camera/Gallery - New features
    • Download manager - New features
    • Framework - New features + Significant bug fixes
    • Bluetooth - New features + Significant bug fixes
    • System software - New features
    • Radio & Telephony - New features

    1.6 Donut
    for more details:
    Android 1.6 Highlights


    • Quick Search Box for Android
    • Camera, Camcorder, and Gallery
    • VPN, 802.1x
    • Battery usage indicator
    • Accessibility
    • Expanded Search Framework
    • Text-to-speech engine
    • Gestures
    • Accessibility
    • Expanded support for screen densities and resolutions
    • Telephony support for CDMA
    • New version of OpenCore
    • 2.6.29 Linux kernel

    2.0/2.1 Eclair
    for more details:
    Android 2.0 Highlights


    • Account manager API
    • Sync adapter API
    • Quick contact
    • Unified inbox with support for
      o multiple Google/Gmail accounts
      o Microsoft Exchange/Activesync accounts
      o Facebook
    • New Bluetooth API
    • HTML5 compatible browser
    • Overhauled camera app
    • Improved accuracy and usability of onscreen keyboard
    • Additional screen resolutions and sizes
    • Updated UI
    • New Gallery app
    • Live wallpapers
    • New News/weather widget

    2.2 Froyo
    for more details:
    Android 2.2 Highlights


    • JIT (Just in Time) Compiler
      o 2 to 2.5 times faster due to JIT compiler.
    • Enterprise
      o Microsoft Exchange friendly!
      o New APIs for device management - remote wipe, etc.
    • browser enhancements
      o 2-3 x performance improvement (Chrome JS engine) "World's Fastest Mobile Browser"
    • Application data backup API, in addition to the installed applications backup
    • Cloud to phone API (Send intents from PC browser to phone)
    • Android Market improvements
      o Improved search
      • + (Quick search)
      • + Search from within app data
      • + Official Apps on SD card support
      • + "Update all apps"
      • + Optional auto-update of all apps
      • + Crash reporting API
    • Macromedia/Adobe Flash 10.1 support
    • Internet connection sharing
      o Tethering to a single PC over USB or Bluetooth
      o Mobile WiFi hotspot/router
    • Separation of core OS and Google apps
    • Stagefright
    • 2.6.32 kernel upgrade
      • HIGHMEM support for RAM >256MB
      • SDIO scheduling and BT improvements

    2.3 Gingerbread
    for more details:
    Android 2.3 Highlights


    • UI refinements for simplicity and speed
    • Faster, more intuitive text input
    • One-touch word selection and copy/paste
    • Improved power management
    • Control over applications
    • New ways of communicating, organizing
      o Internet calling
      o Near-field communications
    • Downloads management
    • Enhancements for gaming
    • New forms of communication
      o Internet telephony
      o Near Field Communications (NFC)turers.
    • Rich multimedia
    • Media Framework
      o New media framework fully replaces OpenCore, maintaining all previous codec/container support for encoding and decoding.
      o Integrated support for the VP8 open video compression format and the WebM open container format
      o Adds AAC encoding and AMR wideband encoding
    • Linux Kernel upgraded to 2.6.35
    • Networking
      o SIP stack, configurable by device manufacturer
      o Support for Near Field Communications (NFC), configurable by device manufacturer
      o Updated BlueZ stack
    • Dalvik runtime improvements

    3.0 Honeycomb
    Exclusive to Tablets
    for more details:
    Android 3.0 Highlights


    • Optimized tablet support with a new user interface
    • Three dimensional desktop with redesigned widgets
    • Refined multi-tasking
    • Browser enhancements
    • Support for video chat using Google Talk
    • Hardware acceleration
    • Support for multi-core processors


    • Virtual buttons in the UI, in place of capacitive or physical buttons
    • Separation of widgets in a new tab, listed in a similar list to apps
    • Easier-to-create folders, with a drag-and-drop style
    • A customizable launcher
    • Improved visual voicemail with the ability to speed up or slow down voicemail messages
    • Pinch-to-zoom functionality in the calendar
    • Offline search, a two-line preview, and new action bar at the bottom of the Gmail app
    • Ability to swipe left or right to switch between Gmail conversations
    • Integrated screenshot capture (accomplished by holding down the Power and Volume-Down buttons)
    • Improved error correction on the keyboard
    • Ability to access apps directly from lock screen (similar to the HTC Sense 3.x)
    • Improved copy and paste functionality
    • Better voice integration and continuous, real-time speech to text dictation
    • Face Unlock, a feature that allows users to unlock handsets using facial recognition software
    • New tabbed web browser, allowing up to 16 tabs
    • Automatic syncing of browser with users' Chrome bookmarks
    • Modern Roboto font
    • Data Usage section in settings that lets users set warnings when they approach a certain usage limit, and disable data when the limit is exceeded
    • Ability to shut down apps that are using data in the background
    • Improved camera app with zero shutter lag, time lapse settings, panorama mode, and the ability to zoom while recording
    • Built-in photo editor
    • New gallery layout, organized by location and person
    • Refreshed 'People' app with social network integration, status updates and hi-res images
    • Android Beam, a NFC feature that lets user exchange web bookmarks, contact info, directions, YouTube, etc.
    • Hardware acceleration of the UI
    • Resizeable widgets, already part of 3.1 but new for cellphones
    • Wi-Fi Direct[60]
    • 1080p video recording for stock android

    • Smoother user interface:
      ---- Vsync timing across all drawing and animation done by the Android framework, including application rendering, touch events, screen composition and display refresh
      ---- Triple buffering in the graphics pipeline
    • Enhanced accessibility
    • Bi-directional text and other language support
    • User-installable keyboard maps
    • Expandable notifications
    • Ability to turn off notifications on an app specific basis
    • Shortcuts and widgets can automatically be re-arranged or re-sized to allow new items to fit on home screens
    • Bluetooth data transfer for Android Beam
    • Offline voice dictation
    • New interface layout for tablets with smaller screens (closer resembling that of a phone)
    • Improved voice search
    • Improved camera app
    • Google Wallet (for the Nexus 7)
    • High resolution Google+ contact photos
    • Google Now
    • Multichannel audio
    • USB audio (for external sound DACs)
    • Audio chaining (also known as gapless playback)
    • For more info, visit www.android.com/about/jelly-bean/

    • Designed to run on devices with as little as 512MB RAM
    • NFC capable
    • Printing framework - you can now use your phone and connect to printers
    • Storage access framework - apps can now access multiple storage options including cloud-based storage
    • Low-power sensors (step detector and counter)
    • Improvements to SMS handling
    • Full-screen immersive mode (nav bar auto-hide)
    • New animated transitions
    • New system UI styling
    • Built-in screen recording
    • Adaptive Playback
    • Audio Tunneling to DSP
    • RenderScript
    • Security enhancements (SELinux)

    Last edited by HHubs; 9th Jan 2017 at 10:35.

  5. #5

    Read Re: Introduction to Android OS (Read first before you tinker with your device)

    What Is Rooting?
    Source: Androidpolice

    Getting root or rooting your phone is the process of modifying the operating system on your device to grant you complete control over it.
    This means you can overcome limitations that the carriers and manufacturers put on your phone, extend system functionality, and even upgrade it to a custom flavor of Android.
    The name root comes from the Linux operating system world, where the most privileged user on the system (otherwise known as Administrator on Windows) is called root.
    Installing a ROM may require rooting first, but just rooting can be done in only a few minutes, keeping your stock OS otherwise completely intact.

    Warning: rooting your phone does run the risk of potentially bricking it (i.e. your phone could become nonfunctional) – so do your homework before attempting anything.

    Benefits Of Rooting

    Full Control Over Android

    You have access to alter any system files, use themes, change boot images, delete annoying stock apps, such as Google Apps, and other various native applications that consume precious RAM (Footprints, Voice Dialer, etc).

    Back Up The System

    On most rooted Android devices, you can backup your entire system to an SD card, much in the same way you can image a hard drive. This is great if you’d like to try a new ROM, as you can back up your phone, wipe it completely, flash the new ROM, and if you don’t like it, you can just restore from your backup and your phone will be exactly how it was before you wiped it.

    These options are usually found in a Custom Recovery or via a 3rd party application called ROM Manager. (Note that this app is not compatible with all devices)

    Save Space On Your Phone

    Move cache data and/or dalvik-cache to SD card
    Rooting allows you to save things like browser cache to your SD card to free up space. Its not too complicated a process, but does take a bit of skill.

    Move installed applications to SD card
    Moving and storing apps on internal memory can significantly slow your device down. If you root, you can avoid that completely.

    The easiest way to move applications to your SD card would be to flash a custom ROM that just does it for you (using an app called Apps2SD)

    Run Special Applications

    • * Super User – allows you to approve or deny root access to any application
    • * Memory Managers – kills tasks you wouldn’t be able to otherwise
    • * Move Cache for Root – move cache for browser, market, maps, street view, and gmail onto SD card
    • * Startup Managers – Clean up android system from system startup to boost system power and memory from the get go
    • * SetCPU for Root Users – Overclocking your rooted device lets you speed up your phone’s processor when you are using it and lets you slow it down when it goes into "sleep" mode. It can either be a battery hog or battery saver.

    Install Custom ROMs

    They’ve gone far beyond simple tweaks and can now give your phone an entirely new look and feel. There are ROMs that can make your phone fly by replacing the kernel with hyper-optimized versions or even overclocking the CPU. The possibilities are nearly limitless and attempting to cover all of the features of all the ROM’s available for all of the phones out there would be pretty much impossible.

    Custom ROMs

    A stock ROM is the version of the phone’s operating system that comes with your phone when you buy it.

    A custom ROM is a fully standalone version of the OS, including the kernel, apps, services, etc – everything you need to operate the device, except it’s customized by a someone.

    So what does the "customized" part mean? Since Android is open source, developers are free to take stock ROMs, modify them, strip them of garbage(bloatware), optimize them, add things, and pretty much do whatever their imagination and skills allow.

    Why You Want Custom ROMs
    Update Frequency

    Using a custom ROM usually results in more frequent updates that fix bugs and introduce new features because the developer behind the ROM doesn’t have the same procedures and red tape that the manufacturer+carrier combo does.
    • A quality update can be released faster because it doesn’t involve the approval of a whole department.
    • A ROM developer usually gains a loyal community which beta tests his updates in real life situations and provide feedback, or even fixes bugs – that’s the beauty of open source software.
    • Finally, most custom ROMs out there are updateable over the air (OTA) and without reinstalling anything.

    Better Performance And Efficiency

    Custom ROMs are oftentimes faster, more efficient, and use less memory because
    • the developer ripped out useless garbage(bloatware), such as carrier installed apps or
    • the developer optimized the kernel. For example, an undervolted kernel can provide a much better battery life than the stock one.

    Upgrading To A Better/Later Version Of Android

    You can upgrade to a version of the OS that has not yet been released for your device, or never will be. This is possible in 2 situations:
    • A leaked or AOSP version of the new OS showed up online, giving the developer access to the sources and starts porting it for your device.
    • A ROM from another phone was ported by the developer to work on yours. For example, G1 and MyTouch 3G users may never see Android 2.1 officially released on their phones, but Cyanogen, one of the most respected Android developers, was recently able to create a custom ROM running 2.1 for those devices.

    Ability To Install Apps To The SD Card

    Most custom ROMs nowadays come with the ability to install applications to the SD card, called Apps2SD (or A2SD).
    This is currently not possible on stock Android 2.1 and below but is natively supported by Android 2.2 and later.
    If you have run out of space on your phone (which I have repeatedly on my Hero), Apps2SD is a killer feature to have.

    The Downsides Of Custom ROMs

    Of course, there are dangers of using custom ROMs which you should be aware of.

    Something Could Go Wrong

    First of all, something may go wrong with the flashing process (that’s the process of installing the ROM) and leave your phone in a bricked state. The chances of this are pretty low nowadays, and most of the time you can restore it back to normal.

    Try to go for the ROM that has been tested by time and has lots of positive feedback.

    Clean Wipe

    In order to install a custom ROM, you need to perform a clean wipe.
    But if you're just applying an update of the same ROM, doing a clean wipe is usually not required.

    This means you will lose all existing data, so you have to back everything up first via a NANDroid backup and via 3rd party apps like Titanium Backup or MyBackup

    Potential Problems

    Custom ROMs could have bugs… but then so do the stock ones.

    However, in case you do find a bug, you actually have a 2-way channel of reporting it – post in the ROM forum and you will more than likely get an answer back and your bug acknowledged.

    You May Void Your Warranty

    It’s possible that custom rooting will void your warranty because you will "break the seal" on the bootloader by installing a custom one which on some phones apparently can’t be undone. Because of that, the manufacturer might be able to tell that the phone has had a custom ROM installed and not honor the warranty, in case you need to use it.

    Now, in most cases, the benefits of the custom ROM outweigh the possibility of your warranty being denied.

  6. #6

    Default Faq


    Root? ano yun?
    Ginagawa po ito para magkaroon tayo ng access sa system. Ihalintulad na lang natin ito sa "administrator" rights sa windows.

    Pareho lang ba ang ROOT (Android) sa HACK (Symbian) at JAILBREAK (iOS)?
    Hmm... opo. Pero may maliit na pagkakaiba lang pagdating sa Jailbreak at Hack.
    Sa android kasi, hindi mo na kailangan pang mag root para makapag install ng games at applications na hindi galing sa Android Market (Jailbreak) at hindi mo na rin kailangang mag root para makapag install ng games at applications na hindi signed ng sarili mong certificate / digital signature (Hack).
    Pumunta sa settings -> applications -> at lagyan ng check ang Unknown Sources.

    Mawawala ba ang apps ko? Mag-iiba ba ang itsura ng phone ko pag nag root ako?
    Hindi po.

    (March 10, 2012) Mawawala ba ang warranty ko pag nag root?
    Technically, yes. Kung babasahin mo kasi yung warranty statement / letter, nakasaad doon na hindi covered ng warranty ang pagkasira ng iyong unit ng dahil sa "unauthorized modification" o "improper installation of applications"

    (March 10, 2012)Eh 'di ibig sabihin, madaling malaman ng technician kung naka-root ka?
    Sa mga phones na hindi na dumaan sa pag unlock ng bootloader at pag flash ng unsecure kernels, hindi na ito mapapansin
    kung ikaw ay dumaan sa mga naunang nabanggit ko, malalaman ito agad ng technician.

    (March 16, 2012)Kung root lang ang ginawa ko sa phone ko, makakapag update ba ako ng official firmware gamit ang PC suite or OTA?
    As long as hindi ka nag-install ng custom rom, you can still update your phone via OTA / PC

    Mawawala ba ang root pag nag update ako ng official FW?
    Opo, pero in some cases hindi nawawala. Case to case basis...

    Yung apps ko mawawala rin pag nag update ako ng official FW?
    Depende po.
    May mga FOTA (Firmware Over-The-Air) kasi na hindi na nangangailangan pa ng Wipe / Factory Reset kung kaya't walang mawawalang apps sa inyong phone.
    Kung gagamit ka naman ng 3rd party PC Software para mag flash ng official update, mangangailangan po ito ng Wipe at mabubura po yung mga apps na naka-install sa phone.
    Ang payo ko po bago mag update, i-backup po ninyo ang inyong apps sa pamamagitan ng Titanium Backup (kailangan ng ROOT) o anumang backup utility.

    Pwede ko ba i-root ulit?
    Opo, kung may available na exploit (rooting app/tool) para sa phone at os version mo.

    Kunwari nag-update ako from Custom ROM version 2.2 to Custom ROM 2.3? Mawawala ba ang root? Mawawala ba ang apps?
    Root, hindi.
    Apps sa phone, depende kung kasama sa instructions ng developer na mag complete wipe bago / pagkatapos i-flash yung bagong version ng ROM kaya i-backup muna lahat ng apps para sigurado.
    Maaari rin gamitin ang NAND-Backup kung mayroon ka.

    After ko mag-update nag fo-force-close yung ibang apps na ni-restore ko from Titanium Backup, ano gagawin ko?
    Reinstall mo lang yung apps.

    Bakit kinakain lagi yung load ko?
    settings --> wireless & networks --> Mobile Networks --> DISABLE Packet Data / Mobile Data
    settings --> accounts & sync --> DISABLE Background Data

    Bakit mabilis maubos battery ko?
    settings --> accounts & sync --> Disable Background Data
    settings --> applicatons --> manage applications --> try to force stop some 3rd party apps that you don't need.
    settings --> wireless & networks --> Mobile Networks --> Use 2G Networks Only
    settings --> display --> Disable light/brightness sensor
    More Sensors Enabled, More widgets, Brighter screen/wallpaper, Live Wallpaper, Overclock = more battery consumption

    Bakit mabilis mag full-charge pero mabilis din maubos?
    settings --> about phone --> status --> battery status --> FULL (Make sure na yan ang nakalagay.)
    calibrate your battery (kung rooted at naginstall ka ng bagong ROM)

    Ginawa ko na yan pero bakit isang araw lang mahigit tumatagal battery ko?
    Ganyan po talaga ang mga bagong smartphones, sadyang malakas kumain ng battery.
    This is caused by a number of things; screen resolution, screen brightness, sensors, cpu frequency, poor battery capacity, background apps / widgets, etc., etc.
    Depende na rin po sa kung paano niyo gamitin ang iyong phone.
    Kung gagawin mong parang PSP na pang games o PC na pang browse, malamang, hindi aabutin ng kalahating araw iyan.

    Eh di i-charge ko na lang ulit. Masisira ba pag charge ako ng charge?
    Sa totoo lang, mas mabuti pa na i-charge siya tuwing lumalabas yung Low-Battery warning kaysa laging inuubos yung laman ng battery bago mag charge. Mas mabilis masira ang battery ng iyong android phone kapag lagi mong sinasagad sa 0%.

    Ah ok. Gamitin ko na lang habang naka-charge. Pero bakit ang init ng phone?
    Normal lang po na umiinit ang battery habang naka-charge o habang ginagamit. Kapag ginamit mo habang naka-charge, mas lalong iinit yung phone.

    Pero maiba tayo. Ok lang ba na gumamit ng Task Killer?
    Para sa akin, hindi na kailangan ng Task Killer. Gaya ng Windows, may sariling pamamaraan ang Android sa pag manage ng RAM.
    Mas maigi na lang na i-freeze or alisin yung mga apps na hindi natin kailangan / ginagamit.
    Ingat lang po sa pagtanggal ng system apps at baka magloko ang iyong phone.

    Eh Anti-Virus?
    Kung maingat ka naman sa paglipat ng files mo, hindi mo na siguro kailangan nito. Pero kung marami namang RAM ang iyong phone at kung sigurista ka, wala akong nakikitang problema kung maglalagay ka ng AV.
    Pwede mo rin basahin ito for a more detailed explanation --> http://www.mobilarian.com/showthread.php?t=518878 credits to sir hmx_ryan

    Ah ok. Sige po. Yan na lang po muna. Isip muna ako ng ibang itatanong.
    Last edited by HHubs; 11th Oct 2012 at 19:41. Reason: Wrong info

  7. #7

    Default Re: *March 11 Update* Introduction to Android OS (Must Read)

    Rule of Thumb / Principles

    • Don't be lazy. Read first before asking questions.

    • Don't be afraid to try new things with your Android but always be cautious of your actions. Devs are not responsible if you brick your device.

    • Backup! Backup! Backup before doing any modifications to the system.

    • Flashing IS safe - so as long as you follow the instructions to the letter.

    • If you don't know what an app / mod / tweak does, don't flash or install it immediately. Take some time to read feedbacks and do some research.

    • If you accidentally deleted a file (system / data), you cannot restore it by performing a hard reset. A hard reset will only revert the phone's settings to default.

    • High benchmarks are good but it all boils down to real-life performance.

    • If you want to show-off, use a performance governor and an overclocked setting. If you want to save battery, use a conservative governor and an underclocked setting.

    • Cached applications will not consume battery because they have no running processes. They'll just sit there and wait until you call for them again so it launches faster. A killed app will have to be initialized and started up before it launches, hence, consuming more battery.

      In the event that your system needs more RAM than what is available, it will start killing apps starting from those that you don't actually need.

      If you're still losing a considerable amount of charge even with idle apps, use a battery monitoring application to check for wakelocks and buggy apps.

    • Avoid task killers.

    • You are using a smartphone. You can do more with your smartphone. You cannot complain if it loses charge in half a day if you maximize its use.

    • Charging the phone heats up the battery. Using the phone while charging will definitely heat it up even more.

    • Not all phones are created equal. Some phones can handle higher clock speeds (overclocking) and lower voltage values (undervolting) while others cannot. If you do go into changing clock speeds and voltage settings, do it in small steps.

    • to be continued...
    Last edited by HHubs; 28th Jun 2012 at 04:56.

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